Related Topics: Digital Census, NPR
- Home Minister Amit Shah has suggested one card for all utilities in the future, while announcing that the 2021 census exercise will be carried out digitally.
- He said that even though there was no formal proposal for the common utility card, digital census has the potential to bring all kinds of cards such as Aadhaar, passport, bank account, driving license under one platform.
- He also said that there should also be a system that when a person dies, the information is updated in the population data automatically.
About Population Census
- Population Census is the total process of collecting, compiling, analyzing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specific time, of all persons in a country or a well-defined part of a country.
- The census provides information on size, distribution and socio-economic, demographic and other characteristics of the country’s population.
- The responsibility of conducting the decennial Census rests with the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India under Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
- The decennial Census exercise undertaken in 2021 will move from paper to digital format for the first time.
- It will be conducted through a mobile phone application, moving away from the traditional pen and paper to give Digital India a boost.
- The census will have its reference date as March 1, 2021, but for snow-bound Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, it will be October 1, 2020.
- The Census data would be available by the year 2024-25 as the entire process would be conducted digitally and data crunching would be quicker.
- The option of “Other” under the gender category will be changed to “Third Gender”.
Significance of Census data
- The data collected through the census are used for administration, planning and policy making as well as management and evaluation of various programmes by the government, NGOs, researchers, commercial and private enterprises, etc.
- The data collected will help in future planning of the country, especially for development initiatives and welfare schemes.
- It is used for demarcation of constituencies and allocation of representation to parliament, State legislative Assemblies and the local bodies.
- Researchers and demographers use census data to analyze growth and trends of population and make projections.
- The census data is also important for business houses and industries for strengthening and planning their business for penetration into areas, which had hitherto remained, uncovered.
Successful Initiatives using Census 2011 data
- On the basis of the 2011 Census, central government had planned 22 welfare schemes related to electricity connections to every home, gas connections, construction of roads, houses for the poor, toilets, bank accounts and opening of bank branches, among others.
- Government’s flagship ‘Ujjwala’ scheme of providing free LPG connections to poor families has been successful as the scheme was prepared on the basis of the 2011 census data.
- Based on 2011 census data that reflected the poor sex ratio of male and female in some states, ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ scheme was launched.
- India’s population is 17.5 per cent of the world’s total population, while the geographical area is just 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world.
- Since India has limited natural resources in comparison to the population, the census data will help in efficient use of resources.
About National Population Register
- The National Population Register (NPR) is a Register of usual residents of the country.
- It is being prepared at the local (Village/sub-Town), sub-District, District, State and National level under provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
- It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the NPR.
- NPR exercise is different from the decennial census and is not linked to the National Register of Citizens (NRC).
- For the purpose of NPR, an ordinary resident is defined as a person who has resided in a local area for past six months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next six months or more.
- The NPR links biometric and demographic details of any ordinary resident of the country, thus making it a comprehensive database of residents.
- The exercise was conducted earlier in two phases in 2010 and 2015.
[Source: The Hindu, Livemint, censusindia.gov]
Related Topics: Environment & Biodiversity, Zoological Survey of India
A team of scientists from the University of Delhi and Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) discovered a new species of frog in Arunachal Pradesh and named it Microhyla eos.
- The scientists discovered the new species from riparian habitats in a primary evergreen forest in the Namdapha tiger reserve, which is the easternmost protected area in the country.
- It is described as the 50th member of the genus Microhyla, a group of narrow-mouthed frogs commonly known as Rice Frogs or Chorus Frogs, primarily and widely distributed in Asia.
- The frog was confirmed to represent a distinct new species after detailed comparison of both, DNA and morphology, with all previously known members of the group found across South, Southeast, and East Asia.
- The new species is named eos, after the mythological Greek goddess of dawn, personifying its habitat in Arunachal Pradesh which is popularly known as the Land of the Rising Sun or the Land of Dawn-lit Mountains.
- DNA analysis by the research team revealed that the closest relatives of Microhyla eos are in Southeast Asia rather than India.
The Northeast: A biodiversity hotspot
- The new discovery shows that the actual number of frog species in northeast India, even in the relatively common and well-studied groups, is higher than current estimates.
- More extensive studies are required to scientifically identify and describe the northeastern frogs, which are already facing extinction threats from various human activities.
- The Eastern Himalayas are an important part of the Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot, one of the 36 globally recognised regions known for high species diversity and endemism, as well as a high number of globallly threatened species.
- However, compared to the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in peninsular India, the eastern Himalayas remain relatively overlooked and unexplored.
- The Northeastern region of India is often considered as a transition zone of faunal elements between the Indian subcontinent and the rest of Asia.
[Source: The Hindu, Down To Earth]
Related Topics: Government Schemes & Initiatives, Public Health
- Union Minister for Science & Technology, Earth Sciences and Health & Family Welfare has launched UMMID (Unique Methods of Management and treatment of Inherited Disorders) initiative.
- He also inaugurated NIDAN (National Inherited Diseases Administration) Kendras, which is being supported by Department of Biotechnology (DBT).
Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has designed the UMMID Initiative on the concept of ‘Prevention is better than Cure’.
- To establish NIDAN Kendras to provide counselling, prenatal testing and diagnosis, management, and multidisciplinary care in Government Hospitals wherein the influx of patients is more
- To produce skilled clinicians in Human Genetics
- To undertake screening of pregnant women and new born babies for inherited genetic diseases in hospitals at aspirational districts.
Need for the Initiative
- Congenital and hereditary genetic diseases are becoming a significant health burden in India.
- There is a need for adequate and effective genetic testing and counselling services in India.
- In India’s urban areas, congenital malformations and genetic disorders are the third most common cause of mortality in newborns.
- With a very large population and high birth rate, and marriage between closely related individuals favored in many communities, prevalence of genetic disorders is high in India.
FACTS OF THE DAY
71ST PRIMETIME EMMY AWARDS
The 71st Emmy Awards was held at the Microsoft Theater in Los Angeles. Much like the Academy Awards (the Oscars) for films, and Grammy Awards for music, the Emmys are the most prestigious awards for the small screen medium.
The big winners of the night were Fleabag (Outstanding Comedy Series, Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series for Phoebe Waller-Bridge, Outstanding Directing for a Comedy Series for Harry Bradbeer, Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series for Phoebe Waller-Bridge), Game of Thrones (Outstanding Drama Series and Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series for Peter Dinklage), Chernobyl (Outstanding Limited Series, Outstanding Directing for a Limited Series, Movie or Dramatic Special for Johan Renck and Outstanding Writing for a Limited Series, Movie, or Dramatic Special for Craig Mazin), Billy Porter (Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series), Jodie Comer (Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series), Bill Hader (Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series) and Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (Outstanding Variety Talk Series and Outstanding Writing – Variety Series) among others.
2015 PARIS CLIMATE ACCORD
Russia announced that it would implement the 2015 Paris Agreement to fight climate change after Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev approved a government resolution signifying Moscow’s final acceptance of the deal. The same resolution said Russia would not technically ratify the accord however due to a legal nuance. Russia is the world’s fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases and the biggest emitter not to have ratified the landmark global climate deal.
In a bid to avoid harassment and inconvenience to citizens under the amended Motor Vehicles (MV) Act, the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has reiterated the necessity of linking all vehicle data with VAHAN database. The States and Union Territories have been asked to ensure that all PUC centres upload emission test data electronically to VAHAN database as per guidelines issued in compliance with Supreme Court directions. This information should be available to citizens in electronic form also in m-Parivahan and e-Challan platforms for their convenience. The government has set up a central depository called Vahan to store data relating to all vehicles.