Why in News?
- Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare has released the 14th National Health Profile (NHP) 2019.
- The 14th edition of NHP is the continuation of the publication since 2005.
What is National Health Profile?
- It is prepared by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI).
- It covers comprehensive information on demographic, socio-economic health status, health finance indicators, health infrastructure and health of human resources in the country.
- The objective of NHP is to create a versatile data base of health information of India and making it available to all stakeholders in the healthcare sector.
- It is also an important source of information on various communicable and non-communicable diseases that are not covered under any other major programmes.
Need for NHP
- Data is an important source of understanding the needs and issues of the population.
- It helps in understanding the goals, strengths and weaknesses.
- It is also an important means to strategize area specific interventions.
- Good quality data enables the policymakers to make evidence-based policies and aids effective implementation of various schemes.
Major Indicators in NHP 2019
The NHP highlights substantial health information under major indicators viz.
- Demographic indicators (population and vital statistics)
- Socio-economic indicators (education, employment, housing and amenities, drinking water and sanitation)
- Health status indicators (incidence and prevalence of common communicable and non-communicable diseases and RCH)
- The health finance section provides an overview of health insurance and expenditure on health, both public and Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOP) etc.
- The section on human resources provides an overview of availability of manpower working in the health sector.
- Health infrastructure section provides details of Medical and Dental Colleges, AYUSH Institutes, Nursing Courses and Paramedical Courses etc.
Key Findings of NHP 2019
- There has been consistent decrease in the birth rate, death rate and natural growth rate in India from 1991 to 2017.
- India had a birth rate of 20.2 and death rate of 6.3 in 2017, while the natural growth rate was 13.9 per 1,000 population.
- The birth rate in rural areas was higher than in urban.
- The birth rate, death rate and natural growth rate were also higher in rural areas as compared to urban.
- Sex ratio in the country has improved from 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011.
- Infant mortality rate (IMR) has declined considerably (33 per 1,000 live births in 2016). However differentials of rural (37) and urban (23) are still high.
- Kerala has recorded the highest sex ratio in respect of total population (1,084), rural population (1,078) and urban (1,091).
- The lowest sex ratio in rural areas has been recorded in Chandigarh (690).
- The total fertility rate in 12 States has fallen below two children per woman and nine States have reached replacement levels of 2.1 and above.
- Average life expectancy in India rose marginally to 68.7 years in the 2012-16 period, with the figures for women and men at 70.2 years and 67.4 years, respectively.
- Non-communicable diseases dominated over the communicable in the total disease burden of the country.
- Out of 6.51 crore patients, who attended NCD clinics under the NPCDCS in 2018, around 4.75% were diagnosed with diabetes, 6.19% with hypertension, 0.30% with cardiovascular diseases, 0.10% with stroke and 0.26% with common cancers.
- On vector-borne diseases, the maximum number of cases and deaths due to malaria were reported in Chhattisgarh (77,140 cases and 26 deaths) in 2018.
About Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI)
- It was established in 1961 by the Act of Parliament on the recommendation of Mudaliar committee.
- It is the Health Intelligence Wing under Directorate General of Health Services in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW).
- The Mission of CBHI is “To strengthen Health Information system in each of the district in the country up to facility level for evidence based decision making in the Health Sector”.
[Source: The Hindu, Livemint]
UNESCO has designated Mumbai as a member of UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) in the field of ‘Film’ and Hyderabad in the field of ‘Gastronomy’.
What is UCCN?
- It was created in 2004 to promote cooperation with and among cities that have identified creativity as a strategic factor for sustainable urban development.
- It is a network of cities which are thriving, active centres of cultural activities in their respective countries.
- The member cities that form part of the Network come from all continents and regions with different income levels and populations.
- They work together towards a common mission: placing creativity and the creative economy at the core of their urban development plans to make cities safe, resilient, inclusive and sustainable, in line with the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The 7 categories for recognition under UCCN are as follows-
- Crafts and Folk Arts
- Media Arts
Other Indian cities recognized as members of UCCN
- Jaipur – Crafts and Folk Arts (2015)
- Varanasi – Creative city of Music (2015)
- Chennai – Creative city of Music (2017)
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan has signed call to action to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis by 2021.
What is Lymphatic Filariasis?
- Lymphatic Filariasis is a parasitic infection spread by mosquitoes.
- It commonly known as elephantiasis.
- The disease is caused by three species of thread-like nematode worms, known as filariae – Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori.
- The parasites develop in and then damage the human lymphatic system and associated tissues.
- It is usually contracted in childhood, often before the age of five.
- The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and specialized tissues that are essential to the maintaining the overall fluid balance and health of organs and limbs.
- They are a major component of the body’s immune defense system.
- People suffering with this disease continue to bear debilitating impact on their health, reducing their potential to work and, in the long run, limiting economic opportunities of families.
- Since the launch of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) by the World Health Organization in 2000, endemic countries across the world including India have adopted a twin pillar strategy.
- The Strategy includes prevention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) using combination of 2 anti-filarial drugs (DEC and Albendazole), and, providing Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention (MMDP) services to those affected by the disease.
Accelerated Plan for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (APELF)
- Renewing India’s commitment towards elimination, Central Government has launched the APELF in 2018.
- As a part of intensifying efforts towards elimination, the government later rolled out IDA treatment (triple drug therpay) in a phased manner.
- As per India’s Accelerated Plan for Lymphatic Filariasis, over 4 billion treatments have been availed by over 630 million target population in endemic districts.
- India has made steady progress under the national program by reducing the infection levels in the community below the threshold level in 96 districts, which accounts for nearly 37% of the total districts.
- The challenge still persists in the remaining 160 districts that continue to sustain active transmission.
- Despite attaining high reported coverage in these districts with multiple annual rounds of MDA over the years, actual consumption of medicines remains low.
- This is mainly due to low awareness about the benefits of medicines at the community-level leading to non-adherence to treatment.
FACTS OF THE DAY
SARDAR PATEL NATIONAL UNITY AWARD
- Government of India has instituted the highest civilian award in the field of contribution to the unity and integrity of India, in the name of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
- The Award seeks to recognize notable and inspiring contributions to promote the cause of national unity and integrity and to reinforce the value of a strong and united India.
- The award will be announced on the occasion of the National Unity Day, i.e. the birth anniversary of Sardar Patel on 31st October.
- The Award would consist of a medal and a citation.
- No monetary grant or cash award would be attached to this Award.
- Not more than three Awards would be given in a year.
- All citizens, without distinction of religion, race caste, gender, place of birth, age or occupation, and any institution/organization would be eligible for the Award.
SHARJAH INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR 2019
- The 38th edition of the Sharjah International Book Fair (SIBF) 2019 was inaugurated by Sheikh Dr Sultan bin Muhammad Al Qasimi, Supreme Council Member and Ruler of Sharjah.
- Nearly 1800 exhibitors from 77 countries are participating in the Fair.
- The fair will showcase 987 activities presenting scientific, knowledge and literary themes.
- This year’s book fair will be carrying the theme of the Sharjah World Book Capital (SWBC), ‘Open Books Open Minds‘, to promote books and reading across age groups and communities.
- Republic of Mexico has been declared as the Guest of Honour at the 38th edition of SIBF.
- America’s most-loved host, Steve Harvey, has been announced Sharjah International Book Fair (SIBF 2019)’s ‘Principal Guest of Honour’.