Why in News?
- Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare has released the 14th National Health Profile (NHP) 2019.
- The 14th edition of NHP is the continuation of the publication since 2005.
What is National Health Profile?
- It is prepared by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI).
- It covers comprehensive information on demographic, socio-economic health status, health finance indicators, health infrastructure and health of human resources in the country.
- The objective of NHP is to create a versatile data base of health information of India and making it available to all stakeholders in the healthcare sector.
- It is also an important source of information on various communicable and non-communicable diseases that are not covered under any other major programmes.
Need for NHP
- Data is an important source of understanding the needs and issues of the population.
- It helps in understanding the goals, strengths and weaknesses.
- It is also an important means to strategize area specific interventions.
- Good quality data enables the policymakers to make evidence-based policies and aids effective implementation of various schemes.
Major Indicators in NHP 2019
The NHP highlights substantial health information under major indicators viz.
- Demographic indicators (population and vital statistics)
- Socio-economic indicators (education, employment, housing and amenities, drinking water and sanitation)
- Health status indicators (incidence and prevalence of common communicable and non-communicable diseases and RCH)
- The health finance section provides an overview of health insurance and expenditure on health, both public and Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOP) etc.
- The section on human resources provides an overview of availability of manpower working in the health sector.
- Health infrastructure section provides details of Medical and Dental Colleges, AYUSH Institutes, Nursing Courses and Paramedical Courses etc.
Key Findings of NHP 2019
- There has been consistent decrease in the birth rate, death rate and natural growth rate in India from 1991 to 2017.
- India had a birth rate of 20.2 and death rate of 6.3 in 2017, while the natural growth rate was 13.9 per 1,000 population.
- The birth rate in rural areas was higher than in urban.
- The birth rate, death rate and natural growth rate were also higher in rural areas as compared to urban.
- Sex ratio in the country has improved from 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011.
- Infant mortality rate (IMR) has declined considerably (33 per 1,000 live births in 2016). However differentials of rural (37) and urban (23) are still high.
- Kerala has recorded the highest sex ratio in respect of total population (1,084), rural population (1,078) and urban (1,091).
- The lowest sex ratio in rural areas has been recorded in Chandigarh (690).
- The total fertility rate in 12 States has fallen below two children per woman and nine States have reached replacement levels of 2.1 and above.
- Average life expectancy in India rose marginally to 68.7 years in the 2012-16 period, with the figures for women and men at 70.2 years and 67.4 years, respectively.
- Non-communicable diseases dominated over the communicable in the total disease burden of the country.
- Out of 6.51 crore patients, who attended NCD clinics under the NPCDCS in 2018, around 4.75% were diagnosed with diabetes, 6.19% with hypertension, 0.30% with cardiovascular diseases, 0.10% with stroke and 0.26% with common cancers.
- On vector-borne diseases, the maximum number of cases and deaths due to malaria were reported in Chhattisgarh (77,140 cases and 26 deaths) in 2018.
About Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI)
- It was established in 1961 by the Act of Parliament on the recommendation of Mudaliar committee.
- It is the Health Intelligence Wing under Directorate General of Health Services in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW).
- The Mission of CBHI is “To strengthen Health Information system in each of the district in the country up to facility level for evidence based decision making in the Health Sector”.
[Source: The Hindu, Livemint]