Related Topic in KAS Prelims Syllabus:
Medieval History [Paper-I]: Culture and Architecture
Geography [Paper-I]: Physical, Social, Economic Geography of World, India and Kerala
- Suranga Bawadi was included in the World Monument Watch list for 2020 along with 24 other monuments from across the world.
- The monument has been selected under the ‘Ancient Water System of the Deccan Plateau’ by World Monuments Fund [the NGO], which monitors restoration of ancient monuments across the globe.
- With this inclusion, the monument is expected to get funds for its restoration.
What is Suranga Bawadi?
- It is an integral part of the ancient Karez system of supplying water through subterranean tunnels.
- It was built during Adil Shahi era in Vijayapura in Karnataka.
- Adil Shahis built the magnificent underground system to supply water to the city, which had a population of nearly 12 lakh.
- Though the Karez system was built in the 16th century by Ali Adil Shah–I, his successor, Ibrahim Adil Shah–II, brought in several changes by adding more structures to strengthen it.
- It is water harnessing technology in which groundwater is brought to the surface by a tunnel.
- They are constructed as a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by sloping tunnels, which tap into subterranean water in a manner that efficiently delivers large quantities of water to the surface by gravity, without need for pumping.
- The technology is believed to be originated in Persia/Iran and was widely used during the medieval period.
- It allows water to be transported over long distances in hot dry climates without loss of much of the water to evaporation.
- The system has the advantage of being resistant to natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods, and to deliberate destruction in war.
- It is environmentally sustainable as it has no additional energy requirement and, thus, has low life cycle operation and maintenance costs.
World Monument Watch list for 2020
- 2020 World Monuments Watch is a selection of 25 at-risk cultural heritage sites that combine great historical significance with contemporary social impact.
- They are facing serious threats such as encroaching urbanization, political turmoil, natural disaster, and violent conflicts, or they present compelling conservation opportunities.
- The World Monuments Watch will work with their communities to find solutions.
[Source: The Hindu, unesco.org]