Related Topic in KAS Prelims Syllabus:
Science and Technology [Paper-II]: Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Care
World Malaria Report 2019 was released by the World Health Organization (WHO) recently.
About the Report
- It provides a comprehensive update on global and regional malaria data and trends.
- The report tracks investments in malaria programmes and research as well as progress across all intervention areas: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, elimination and surveillance.
- It also includes dedicated chapters on the consequences of malaria on maternal, infant and child health, the “High Burden to High Impact” approach as well as biological threats to the fight against malaria.
- The 2019 report is based on information received from more than 80 countries and areas with ongoing malaria transmission.
- This information is supplemented by data from national household surveys and databases held by other organizations.
- Nineteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa and India accounted for 85 per cent of the global malaria burden in 2018.
- Globally 228 million malaria cases were reported in 2018, which is marginally lower than the number of cases in 2017 (231 million).
- More than 85% of the global malaria deaths in 2018 were concentrated in the 20 countries of WHO’s African region and India.
- Nigeria had the highest burden of all malaria cases, at 24%.
- Incidence of P vivax malaria (the second most common form of the disease) was the highest in India, which accounts for 47% of all cases in 2018, or roughly 3.5 million.
- WHO region-wise: The highest estimated cases of all malaria forms were in Africa, at 93% of the cases (213 million), followed by South-East Asia (9 million), East Mediterranean (4.9), Western Pacific (1.98) and the Americas (9.29).
- The number of cases has increased from 206 million in 2016 and 212 million in Africa.
- It has declined in all other regions except Western Pacific, where it has risen from 1.7 million in 2016 and 1.8 million in 2017 to 1.98 million in 2018.
- In 2018 there were 4,05,000 deaths from malaria globally, compared to 4,16,000 in 2017 and 5,85,000 in 2010.
- Africa had the highest number of deaths due to malaria in 2018, at 3,80,000.
- Seven states account for about 90% of the burden of malaria cases in India.
- These are Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.
- Compared to 2017, India reported 2.6 million fewer cases in 2018.
- This makes India the country with the largest absolute reductions among the countries that share 85% of the malaria burden.