Related Topic in KAS Prelims Syllabus:
Social Justice [Paper-I]: Rights Issues (Human rights, Women rights, SC/ST rights, Child rights, etc.)
India was ranked 112th among 153 countries in the annual Global Gender Gap Index for 2020, published by the World Economic Forum (WEF).
About the Report
- The Report benchmarks countries on their progress towards gender parity in four dimensions: Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival and Political Empowerment.
- It is based on a methodology integrating the latest statistics from international organizations and a survey of executives.
- The Report aims to serve as a compass to track progress on relative gaps between women and men on health, education, economy and politics.
- Through this annual yardstick, stakeholders within each country are able to set priorities relevant in each specific economic, political and cultural context.
- Globally, the average (population-weighted) distance completed to gender parity is at 68.6%, which is an improvement since last edition.
- The largest gender disparity is in political empowerment. Only 25% of the 35,127 seats in parliaments around the world are occupied by women, and only 21% of the 3,343 ministers are women.
- Projecting current trends into the future, the overall global gender gap will close in 99.5 years, on average, across the 107 countries covered continuously since the first edition of the Report.
- Iceland is the most gender-equal country in the world for the 11th time in a row. It has closed almost 88% of its overall gender gap, further improving since last year.
- Iceland is followed by Norway (2nd, 84.2%), Finland (3rd, 83.2%) and Sweden (4th, 82.0%).
- At the current pace, gender gaps can potentially be closed in 54 years in Western Europe, 59 years in Latin America and the Caribbean, 5 years in South Asia, 95 years in Sub Saharan Africa, 107 years in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 140 years in the Middle East and North Africa, 151 years in North America, and 163 years in East Asia and the Pacific.
Performance of India
- India has closed two-thirds of its overall gender gap (score of 66.8%).
- It has lost four positions since the previous edition, despite a small score improvement, as some countries ranked lower than India have improved more.
- The economic gender gap runs particularly deep in India.
- Among the 153 countries studied, India is the only country where the economic gender gap is larger than the political gender gap
- India was ranked 18th in political empowerment and 4th in the number of years a female or a male ruled a state.
- It ranks 149th in economic participation and opportunity and 117th in wage equality for similar work. The country ranked 112th in educational attainment and 150th in health and survival.
- The wide Gender Gap in India is due to Religious and Historical Societal linkages. The process is much slower as compared to other countries because of attitudes prevailing in Indian societal culture.
- Of the past 50 years, India was headed by a woman for 20 years (ranked 4th).
- But today, female political representation is low: women make up only 14.4% of the parliament (ranked 122nd) and 23% of the cabinet (ranked 69th).