Related Topic in KAS Prelims Syllabus:
Social Justice [Paper-I]: Rights Issues (Human rights, Women rights, SC/ST rights, Child rights, etc.)
The first ever Global Refugee Forum was held in Geneva, Switzerland.
About the Forum
- It is jointly hosted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Refugee Agency, and the Government of Switzerland.
- It aims to debate and discuss the response of the world’s countries to the global refugee situation.
- The GRF will be held every four years at the Ministerial level.
- It is intended to present an opportunity for UN member states and other stakeholders to announce action plans and pledges towards meeting objectives such as easing the burden on the host country, enhancing refugee self-reliance, expanding access to third-country solutions, and supporting conditions in countries of origin for return in safety and dignity.
- According to the UNHCR, the first GRF was held “at the end of a tumultuous decade in which the number of refugees has risen to over 25 million people worldwide”.
- It was organised around six areas of focus: burden- and responsibility-sharing, education, jobs and livelihoods, energy and infrastructure, solutions, and protection capacity.
- At the two-day event, member states of the United Nations (UN) are debated the response of nations to the global refugee situation.
Global Refugee Numbers
- According to the UN, by the end of 2018, there were around 70.8 million people around the world who had left their home countries because of conflict and persecution. Of these 70.8 million, roughly 30 million are refugees.
- Globally, more two-thirds of all refugees come from five countries: Syria (6.7 million), Afghanistan (2.7 million), South Sudan (2.3 million), Myanmar (1.1 million), and Somalia (0.9 million).
- Countries in the developed regions host 16 percent of refugees; one-third of the refugee population (6.7 million people) are in the Least Developed Countries.
- The largest host countries are Turkey (3.7 million), Pakistan (1.4 million), Uganda (1.2 million), Sudan (1.1 million), and Germany (1.1 million).
- According to the UN’s Global Trends report, there are 37,000 new displacements every day.
- In 2018, 13.6 million people were newly displaced due to conflict and or persecution.
Refugee situation in India
- India does not have a separate statute for refugees. India is dealing with refugees on a case-by-case basis.
- India is not a signatory to the 1951 Convention on Refugees or the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.
- In 2011, the Union government circulated to all states and Union Territories a Standard Operating Procedure to deal with foreign nationals who claimed to be refugees.
- In late 2011, the Rohingya started to arrive in India following stepped-up persecution by the Myanmarese armed forces.
- According to the Home Ministry, there are roughly 14,000 Rohingya refugees in India who are registered with the UNHCR, and there are estimated to be 40,000 Rohingya living in India illegally.