Related Topic in KAS Prelims Syllabus:
Ancient and Medieval History [Paper-I]: Art, culture, literature and Architecutre
- Epigraphy Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India has discovered the earliest epigraphic evidence so far for the Saptamatrika cult.
- It was discovered in Chebrolu village in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.
Who are Saptamatrikas?
- Saptamatrikas are a group of seven female deities worshipped in Hinduism as personifying the energy of their respective consorts.
- They are Brahmani (wife of Brahma), Maheshvari (wife of Shiva), Kaumari (wife of Kumara), Vaishnavi (wife of Vishnu), Varahi (wife of Varaha, or the boar, an avatar [incarnation] of Vishnu), Indrani (wife of Indra), and Chamunda, or Yami (wife of Yama).
Earliest Sanskrit Inscription
- The found inscription records the construction of a Prasada (temple), a mandapa and consecration of images by a person named Kartika at the temple of Goddess Saptamatrika at Tambrape.
- Tambrape is the ancient name of Chebrolou, Andhra Pradesh.
- The verification of all the available records proved that the Chebrolu inscription of Satavahana king Vijaya issued in his 5th regnal year – 207 A.D. — is also the earliest datable Sanskrit inscription from South India.
- The inscription is in Sanskrit and in Brahmi characters.
- According to Matsya Purana, Vijaya is the 28th king of the Satavahana dynasty and ruled for 6 years.
- So far the Nagarjunakonda inscription of Ikshavaku King Ehavala Chantamula issued in his 11th regnal year corresponding to the 4th century A.D. was considered the earliest Sanskrit inscription in South India.
[Source: The Hindu]
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Related Topic in KAS Prelims Syllabus:
Science and Technology [Paper-II]: Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Care
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has become the first country to formally recognize Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP).
What is Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP)?
- Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) is published by the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) on behalf of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India in fulfillment of the requirements of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules 1945 there under.
- It is recognized as the official book of standards for the drugs being manufactured and/or marketed in India.
- It contains a collection of authoritative procedures of analysis and specifications of drugs for their identity, purity and strength.
- The standards of the IP are authoritative in nature and are enforced by the regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality of drugs in India.
- During quality assurance and at the time of dispute in the court of law the IP standards are legally acceptable.
Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC)
- It is an Autonomous Institution of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India.
- IPC was established by executive orders in 1945 according to the Indian Drugs and Cometics Act, 1940. It is headquartered in Ghaziabad, U.P.
- It is created to set standards of drugs in the country. Its basic function is to update regularly the standards of drugs commonly required for treatment of diseases prevailing in this region.
- It publishes official documents for improving Quality of Medicines by way of adding new and updating existing monographs in the form of Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP).
- It further promotes rational use of generic medicines by publishing National Formulary of India.
- IP prescribes standards for identity, purity and strength of drugs essentially required from health care perspective of human beings and animals.
- IPC also provides IP Reference Substances (IPRS) which act as a finger print for identification of an article under test and its purity as prescribed in IP.
FACTS OF THE DAY
- Typhoon Phanfone, known locally as Typhoon Ursula, made its way through islands of central Philippines on 25 December, 2019.
- Around 2,351 people have been affected by the typhoon and 1,654 people were taking refuge in evacuation centers, according to the Philippine national disaster management agency, NDRRMC.
- Phanfone followed a similar path to the devastating Typhoon Haiyan in 2013, which was one of the most powerful storms on record and killed at least 6,000 people.
FREE WiFi TO ALL VILLAGES
- Union Telecom Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad announced that the central government will provide free WiFi till March 2020 to all villages connected through the BharatNet broadband service at present.
- At present, around 48,000 villages connected through the BharatNet project have WiFi access.
- 1.3 lakh gram panchayats are already connected through BharatNet optical fibre network. Central government aims to take this to 2.5 lakh gram panchayats.
- The government’s BharatNet project aims to provide access to all the 2.5 lakh gram panchayats across the country.
- A total of Rs 20,431 crore has been spent from the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) for connecting villages under BharatNet.
- CSC e-Governance Services India Ltd is implementing the Digital Village initiative in rural and remote areas of the country.
- A DigiGaon or digital village was conceptualised as a connected village where citizens can avail various e-services of the central government, state governments and private players.
PANDIT MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA
- December 25 is the birth anniversary of Madan Mohan Malaviya, the famed Indian educationist and freedom fighter who is also called ‘Mahamana’.
- Malaviya is known for founding the Banaras Hindu University and for acting as a bridge between the Moderates and the Extremists in the Congress.
- He was elected as the president of Indian National Congress four times – in 1909 (Lahore), in 1918 (Delhi), in 1930 (Delhi), and in 1932 (Calcutta).
- Malaviya was one of the early leaders of the Hindu Mahasabha, and helped found it in 1906.
- He was a social reformer and served as a member of the Imperial Legislative Council for 11 years (1909–20).
WORLD’S OLDEST KNOWN FOSSIL FOREST
- The world’s oldest known fossil forest has been discovered in a sandstone quarry in New York State, offering new insights into how trees transformed the planet.
- The forest, found in the town of Cairo, New York would have spanned from New York to Pennsylvania and beyond, and has been dated to about 386m years old.
- It is one of only three known fossil forests dating to this period and about 2-3m years older than the previously oldest known fossil forest at Gilboa, also in New York State.
- According to researchers, the Cairo forest is older than the one at Gilboa because fossils were lower down in sequence of rocks that occur in the Catskill Mountains.
QUICK REACTION SURFACE TO AIR MISSILE (QRSAM)
- DRDO successfully test-fired its Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) system from a base off Odisha coast.
- The missile, developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), in association with Bharat Electronics Limited and Bharat Dynamics Limited, was flight-tested from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur, Odisha.
- The QRSAM weapon system, which operates on the move, comprises fully automated command and control, active array battery surveillance radar, active array battery multifunction radar and launcher.
- With this mission, the developmental trials of the weapon system have been successfully completed and it is expected to be ready for induction by 2021.