Related Topic in KAS Prelims Syllabus:
Geography [Paper-I]: Physical, Social, Economic Geography of World, India and Kerala
India Meteorological Department (IMD) has recently released ‘Statement on Climate of India during 2019’.
- India’s annual mean surface air temperature was +0.36°C above the 1981-2010 period average during all the four seasons in 2019, with the monsoon (June-September) being the warmest since 1901.
- The temperature was substantially lower than the surface air temperature in 2016, but scientists warned that the threat of climate change, if not dealt with, could lead to many more extreme weather events.
- The year 2016 remains the warmest year on record for India so far, followed by 2009, 2017, 2010, and 2015.
- The annual rainfall over the country was 109 % of long period average (LPA).
- Rainfall over the country as a whole during the SW monsoon season (June-September), which is the principal rainy season of the country, was normal (110 % of LPA).
- During this season, among the four large geographical regions of the country, Central India and South Peninsular India received 129% and 116% of its LPA rainfall respectively, while Northwest India received 98% and East & Northeast India received 88% of its LPA rainfall.
- The 2019 northeast monsoon season (October-December) rainfall over the country as a whole was above normal (129% of LPA).
High Impact Weather Events
- Extreme weather events driven by climate change claimed as many as 1,659 lives across India in 2019, which ended as the seventh warmest year on record.
- The most evident impact was seen on the oceans, with one of the most intense cyclone seasons ever.
- As many as eight cyclonic storms formed over the Indian seas, including five in the Arabian Sea, compared to the usual one per year.
- However, the cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal during 2019 has been subdued as only 3 cyclones formed against the normal of 4 per year.
- The country also experienced other high impact weather events like, extremely heavy rainfall, heat and cold waves, snow fall, thunderstorm, dust storm, lightning, floods etc.
- Heavy rain– and flood-related incidents took the maximum toll, claiming more than 850 lives across states.
- Heavy showers also claimed several lives in Maharashtra (136), Uttar Pradesh (107), Kerala (88), Rajasthan (80), and Karnataka (43).
- Heatwave conditions which prevailed over the northeastern & central parts of the country during the period of March to June, 2019 claimed 350 lives.
- Lightning and thunderstorm in these states led to the death of 380 people.
- Snowfall and avalanche-related incidents killed 33 people in Jammu and Kashmir and 18 in Leh.
- Bihar was the most adversely affected state during the year which reported about 650 lives due to Heavy rain & floods, heat wave, lightning, thunderstorm and hailstorm.
[Source: Livemint, mausam.imd.gov.in]