Daily answer writing assignment

Answer Writing Assignment(18-06-2020)

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Discuss the types of soils and their distribution India? (150 words)

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  • In india soil can be classified from ancient period itself as urvara(fertile) and usara(sterile). Geographically indian soils are broadly decided into *soils of peninsular India
    *Soils of extra peninsular India

    The soils of peninsular India is formed by the decomposition of rocks in situ i.e,directly from underlying rocks. It is also known as sedentary rocks.
    The soils of extra peninsula are formed by the depositional work of wind and rivers. It is also known as transported or axonal soil.

    Major soils types found in india are

    1. Alluvial soil
    Can be seen in major part of India (43 percent) about 143sq km.
    Most fertile soil.
    Can be seen in northern plains and river valleys.
    When it is seen in peninsular India it is called deltas and esturies.
    Humus and organic content is present.
    Indus- ganga-brahmaputra plain and narmada-tapi plains are examples.
    They are depositional soil.
    New alluvial soil is called khader and old alluvial soil is called bhangee.
    Wheat,rice,maize,pulses,cerels,sugarcane are mainly cultivated in this soil.

    2. Red soil
    Mainly seen in low rainfall area.also known as omnibus group.
    Red colour is because of presence of ferrous oxide.kanker is absent.
    Porous and friable structure.
    Wheat,pulses,tobaco,potato,oilseeds are mainly cultivated in this soil.

    3. Black soil
    It is otherwise known as regur. Regur means cotton-highly fertile for cotton cultivation. Mainly seen in Deccan area.
    Swells and become sticky when wet and shrinks when get dry.
    It’s main feature is its self ploughing natuture- it develop cracks when get dry.
    Rich in iron ,manganse,calcium,pottasium,magnesium
    Deficient in nitrogen ,phospherous

    4. Laterite soil
    Word laterite comes from later which means brick. Mainly seen in high temperature and high rainfall area.deficient in lime,humus .
    Organic matter contains in the soil removed fasly by the bacteria present in the soil because of high temparature and humus present in the soil get absorbed by the trees.rich in iron and alluminium.
    Rice,raggi,sugar cane,cashew are main crops cultivate in this soil.

    5. Desert soil
    Seen in arid and semi arid areas.
    Deposited mainly due to wind activities.high salt content is seen .humus content is absent.kanker is present which causes infiltration of water in the soil.

    6. Peaty or marshy soil
    Mainly seen in high rain fall and high humidity areas. Large quantity of organic/humus factor is present so it is alkaline. Growth of vegetation is low.
    7. Forest soil
    Seen in high rain fall regions. Humus content is low so it is acidic.
    8. Mountain soil
    Immature soil with low humus so acidic. Mainly seen in mountain regions.

    India consists of many physio geographic divisions so the soils are also different from region to region

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